Let freedom be cherished that learning may flourish.

University of Chicago Kalven Committee Report  on the University’s Role in Political and Social Action

University of Chicago Provost

The Kalven Committee was appointed in February 1967 by University of Chicago President George W. Beadle. This faculty committee was charged with preparing "a statement on the University's role in political and social action." The resulting Kalven Report now stands as one of the most important policy documents at the University of Chicago. It affirms the University's commitment to the academic freedom of faculty and students in the face of suppression from internal and/or external entities while also insisting on institutional neutrality on political and social issues.  

Report of a University of Chicago faculty committee, under the chairmanship of Harry Kalven Jr. Committee appointed by President George W. Beadle. Report published in the Record, Vol. I, No. 1, November 11, 1967

The Committee was appointed in February 1967 by President George W. Beadle
and requested to prepare “a statement on the University’s role in political and social
action.” The Committee conceives its function as principally that of providing a point of
departure for discussion in the University community of this important question.

The Committee has reviewed the experience of the University in such matters as its
participation in neighborhood redevelopment, its defense of academic freedom in the
Broyles Bill inquiry of the 1940s and again in the Jenner Committee hearings of the early
1950s, its opposition to the Disclaimer Affidavit in the National Defense Education Act of
1958, its reappraisal of the criteria by which it rents the off-campus housing it owns, and
its position on furnishing the rank of male students to Selective Service. In its own
discussions, the Committee has found a deep consensus on the appropriate role of the
university in political and social action. It senses some popular misconceptions about that
role and wishes, therefore, simply to reaffirm a few old truths and a cherished tradition.

A university has a great and unique role to play in fostering the development of
social and political values in a society. The role is defined by the distinctive mission of the
university and defined too by the distinctive characteristics of the university as a
community. It is a role for the long term.

The mission of the university is the discovery, improvement, and dissemination of
knowledge. Its domain of inquiry and scrutiny includes all aspects and all values of
society. A university faithful to its mission will provide enduring challenges to social
values, policies, practices, and institutions. By design and by effect, it is the institution
which creates discontent with the existing social arrangements and proposes new ones. In
brief, a good university, like Socrates, will be upsetting.

The instrument of dissent and criticism is the individual faculty member or the
individual student. The university is the home and sponsor of critics; it is not itself the
critic. It is, to go back once again to the classic phrase, a community of scholars. To
perform its mission in the society, a university must sustain an extraordinary environment
of freedom of inquiry and maintain an independence from political fashions, passions, and
pressures. A university, if it is to be true to its faith in intellectual inquiry, must embrace, be
hospitable to, and encourage the widest diversity of views within its own community. It is
a community but only for the limited, albeit great, purposes of teaching and research. It is
not a club, it is not a trade association, it is not a lobby.

Since the university is a community only for these limited and distinctive purposes,
it is a community which cannot take collective action on the issues of the day without
endangering the conditions for its existence and effectiveness. There is no mechanism by
which it can reach a collective position without inhibiting that full freedom of dissent on
which it thrives. It cannot insist that all of its members favor a given view of social policy;
if it takes collective action, therefore, it does so at the price of censuring any minority who
do not agree with the view adopted. In brief, it is a community which cannot resort to
majority vote to reach positions on public issues.
The neutrality of the university as an institution arises then not from a lack of
courage nor out of indifference and insensitivity. It arises out of respect for free inquiry
and the obligation to cherish a diversity of viewpoints. And this neutrality as an institution
has its complement in the fullest freedom for its faculty and students as individuals to
participate in political action and social protest. It finds its complement, too, in the
obligation of the university to provide a forum for the most searching and candid
discussion of public issues.

Moreover, the sources of power of a great university should not be misconceived.
Its prestige and influence are based on integrity and intellectual competence; they are not
based on the circumstance that it may be wealthy, may have political contacts, and may
have influential friends.

From time to time instances will arise in which the society, or segments of it,
threaten the very mission of the university and its values of free inquiry. In such a crisis, it
becomes the obligation of the university as an institution to oppose such measures and
actively to defend its interests and its values. There is another context in which questions
as to the appropriate role of the university may possibly arise, situations involving
university ownership of property, its receipt of funds, its awarding of honors, its
membership in other organizations. Here, of necessity, the university, however it acts,
must act as an institution in its corporate capacity. In the exceptional instance, these
corporate activities of the university may appear so incompatible with paramount social
values as to require careful assessment of the consequences.

These extraordinary instances apart, there emerges, as we see it, a heavy
presumption against the university taking collective action or expressing opinions on the
political and social issues of the day, or modifying its corporate activities to foster social or
political values, however compelling and appealing they may be.

These are admittedly matters of large principle, and the application of principle to an
individual case will not be easy.

It must always be appropriate, therefore, for faculty or students or administration to
question, through existing channels such as the Committee of the Council or the Council,
whether in light of these principles the University in particular circumstances is playing its
proper role.

Our basic conviction is that a great university can perform greatly for the betterment
of society. It should not, therefore, permit itself to be diverted from its mission into
playing the role of a second-rate political force or influence.

Harry Kalven, Jr., Chairman
John Hope Franklin
Gwin J. Kolb
George Stigler
Jacob Getzels
Julian Goldsmith
Gilbert F. White